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Miniaturization and Large Scale Integration
After the invention of the integrated circuit, it took very little time to realize the tremendous benefits of miniaturizing and integrating larger numbers of transistors into the same integrated circuit. More transistors (switches) were required in order to implement more complicated functions. Miniaturization was the key to integrating together large numbers of transistors while increasing hardware speed and keeping power consumption and space requirements manageable.
Large scale integration ("LSI") came to refer to the creation of integrated circuits that had previously been made from multiple discrete components. These devices typically contained hundreds of transistors. Early computers were made from many of these smaller ICs connected together on circuit boards.