Your CPU can generally be thought of as in one of two states. Idle – which is not it being lazy, is just generally when your PC isn’t busy doing anything such as playing games or movie files. In an ideal world with nice ambient room temperature, this will typically come in around 122F/50C.
Now while that may well be the temperature at some of the hottest deserts in the World, it’s relatively chilled for a CPU, but you still wouldn’t want to put your finger directly on one.
If you apply some load on it, the temperature won’t take long to shoot up, but again, if things are cooled adequately, you wouldn’t really ever want it to go higher than 176F/80C for any sustained period of time.
In extreme examples, if your cooling has failed or failing or something else is causing heat issues once your CPU crosses the 200F barrier, which is getting on for the boiling point of water, your PC should ideally just turn itself off to prevent damage from overheating, or at least, you better hope it does.
In a real-world example, this is the system I am working on right now while writing this. As you can see from the below image, my CPU is nestled comfortably just around 129F, but it keeps dipping to nearer 120F.
You might also notice that Slack, which we are using while home working is taking up a ridiculous 36% of my CPUs load, but that’s another matter for another day, we still aren’t doing anything too testing.